[1 ]We hear of the Edictum Aedilium in the Constitutions ‘Omnem’ (4) and Δέδωκεν (5) prefixed to the Digest. 3 John 1:1. The last trace of legislation belongs to the reign of Nerva (96-98 a. d.)2 . proem) is less surprising when we see how closely Tribonian has followed the arrangement of Gaius, and how largely, when no change of legislation prohibited, he has appropriated his very words.’. Probably the root of the word "gay", which used to mean "jolly". It was either the work of the magistrate or the work of the jurisconsult. xlv-xlviii. The Populus, which comprised the whole of the Roman people, Patricians as well as Plebeians, met, either by centuries, as the Comitia Centuriata, or by tribes, as the Comitia Tributa, under the presidency of a Consul or Praetor. Gaius or Caius. This is the latest date which is traceable in the life of Gaius. Respecting the rules of Cretio, 2. l. c; pro Mur. The manumission of slaves who had been left free by testament, on the condition of purchasing their freedom, was also facilitated6 . New rulings cannot be introduced into a system of law without affecting old ones. The Principate gave a definiteness to law, but a definiteness that was in no sense illiberal. He might take other cases, if he willed; but his jurisdiction was always voluntary; and, if he declined to act, the case went before the Praetor. But the system, or one closely modelled on it, was perpetuated by the Lex Calpurnia Repetundarum of 149 b. c.2 , and gradually these recuperatorial boards grew into great panels of Judices, the qualifications for the jurors being specified by judiciary laws (Leges Judiciariae). ii, p. 439). Leges and Plebiscita—specimens of which are to be found in the Leges Juliae of Augustus, the Lex Aelia Sentia belonging to the reign of the same monarch, the Lex Junia Norbana of the reign of Tiberius, the Leges Claudiae of the Emperor Claudius — continued to be passed during the early Principate. Gaius attributes to these decrees ‘the binding force of law’; and it does not seem that the early doubts as to whether the Senate could pass ordinances immediately binding on the community1 survived the beginning of the Principate. There is a stage in the history of law where liberty of interpretation may lead to perplexing uncertainty, and there is a stage in the history of any national judicial organization where certain radical methods are necessary to adapt it to new needs. It is probable that a still greater work of revision was at one time projected for this jurist; for we are told that Caesar, amidst his ambitious schemes for the regeneration of the Roman world, conceived the idea of making a digest of the Roman law3 . Suetonius says (Calig. The process of a thorough imperial unification by means of a common system of Roman Private Law had begun. We are told that the influence of skilled lawyers was for a very long time represented by the College of Pontifices. . [2 ]Compare the procedure ordained by the Lex agraria of 111 b. c. (Bruns, Fontes, iii. Nor can we ignore the influence of the Edictum Provinciale, although this came later and at a time when the typical elements in Roman procedure had been fixed. The processes of the Courts were the same for every Province at a time when the greatest varieties of customary law were recognized by these courts. . But the traditions connected with the publication at Rome, even of the simplest information about Procedure, are exceedingly obscure. The change from Monarchy to Republic could have made little difference in the manner in which the law was revealed to the Roman litigant, except in so far as this change may have increased the power of the College of Pontiffs. A Macedonian, who accompanied Paul in his travels, and whose life was in danger at Ephesus, Acts 19:29. It may even be questioned whether the Edict of Caracalla, which is believed to have extended Roman citizenship to all the free inhabitants of that portion of the world that was ruled by Rome, between the years 212 and 217 a d., really eliminated all the local varieties of customary law. Since the authority of the Princeps was built up in this gradual and unsystematic way, it is quite impossible for the modern inquirer to determine with precision the sources of the exercise of his different powers. It is obvious that, where much was granted by Charter, little was left to the discretion of the governor. 2. [3 ]Paulus in Dig. centuries (voting with the 1st class, Livy; with the 2nd class, Dionysius). Controversy grew and flourished1 . [1 ]See Roby, Introduction to the Study of Justinian’s Digest, pp. Liv. The Proconsulare Imperium and the Tribunicia Potestas required to be supplemented by a number of separate powers conferred by special grants. In the later Republican period it was probably quite the most active of the legislative assemblies of the whole people. 4 1 1 ‘Quodcumque . 50 148; [Cic.] It was no business of theirs to abolish patrician privileges or to remove the peculiarities of patrician ceremonial; but they had to find a system of Jus which would be equally valid for all Romans; and this they naturally found in the customary law of the mass of the people; that is, of the Plebs. When a debt to the State was the object of dispute, the custom may eventually have been established that the magistrate should not himself judge, but should appoint for this purpose a panel of those assessors of debts or damages who were known as Recuperatores2 . 7. The rest of the edict which took a definite shape, covered the procedure which the governor promised to apply for the recovery of certain rights by individuals—rights such as those entailed in inheritance or the seizure of a debtor’s goods. The name Gaius is a boy's name of Latin origin meaning "to rejoice".. In the provincial world, the right of appeal was at first regulated in accordance with the distinction between Caesar’s provinces and the provinces of the Roman people. Since the Plebs came gradually to constitute the majority of voters in the assemblies of the people, these petitions must as time went on have been almost invariably confirmed. It is even possible that a further divergence of practice may have existed in the most primitive society, or societies, out of which the City and Monarchy of Rome developed—that a considerable amount of autonomy in legal relations may have existed in the Clans (Gentes) and Villages (Vici), out of which the earliest Rome was formed. [1 ]This procedure is illustrated by the Lex Bantina (Bruns, Fontes, iii. It is of Latin origin, and the meaning of Gaius is "happy". Justice could only be obtained by a litigant who knew the formularies of action, precise verbal accuracy in which was necessary for the successful conduct of a suit1 . Only used by gens Fabia. 26) uses the expression ‘Jam sublato edicto divi Augusti,’ a phrase which suggests something more than mere neglect. [4 ]These three functions are summed up by Cicero in the words agere, cavere, respondere See Cic. Ascon. or Institutes of Roman Law by Gaius, with a Translation and Commentary by the late Edward Rome in the historical period still preserves many traces of these beliefs of her infancy. It was necessary, however, to protect other parties to these contracts; and the Praetor gradually created a series of quasi-liabilities for the master of the trading slave. 2. The third Edictum Perpetuum which was valid in Rome was that of the Curule Aediles3 . [1 ]Cic. 5 Cf Ulpian in Dig. Recognition was given to testamentary disposition as performed ‘per aes et libram’1 ; while, in the matters of intestate inheritance and guardianship, the rights of the Agnati, common to Plebeians and Patricians, were regarded as prior to those of the Gentiles2 The harsh law of debt, which was a result at once of freedom of contract and of the very severe view which ancient societies take of the defaulting debtor, was maintained; the Judicatus still became the bondsman of his creditor3 , but now (perhaps for the first time), all the stages of the process of execution were published to the world, the rights of the creditor were defined, the chances of escape open to the debtor were accurately described. Even his full name has been lost; for, if ‘Gaius’ is the familiar Roman praenomen1, he must have had a family or gentile name as well. He is not only prosecutor or plaintiff but also judge. In that year ‘Niebuhr noticed in the library of the Cathedral Chapter at Verona a manuscript in which certain compositions of Saint Jerome had been written over some prior writings, which in certain places had themselves been superposed on some still earlier inscription. The Princeps might take any case, but often limited his intervention to crimes committed by imperial servants or by officers of the army. The legal consequence of contact with foreign races is summed up in the phrase Jus Gentium. This portion of the edict spoke about the financial relations of the states of the province to the Roman government and to its agents, and stated the rules which regulated the relations of the tax-gatherers (Publicani) to the tax-payers. The power of veto, inherent in the Tribunicia Potestas, gave the Princeps a control over all the other magistrates of the State, enabled him to exercise over the jurisdiction of the Senate a power akin to that of pardon, and probably formed the basis of much of his appellate jurisdiction. It was thus that Aristo dealt with Labeo, and Pomponius with Sabinus. See Liv. jussus essem’). The procedure springing from this Law has analogies both to civil and to criminal jurisdiction. 1: ‘Quod principi placuit, legis habet vigorem; utpote cum lege regia, quae de imperio ejus lata est, populus ei et in eum omne suum imperium et potestatem conferat.’ It has been questioned whether the expression lex regia was in vogue even in the time of Ulpian, and it may be an interpolation. The Edicts, Decrees, and Rescripts came to be described by the collective name of ‘Imperial Constitutions’ (Constitutiones Principum), and by the time of Gaius they were held to possess, in a uniform degree, ‘the binding force of law1 .’ On a lower level, with respect to legal validity, stood the Mandatum. . This was a mere provisional arrangement initiated by the Senate for the benefit of the provincials1 . viii. Even at this early period the private Judex or Arbiter may often have been used for the final settlement of a suit3 ; but the King must have assisted in his appointment; and his judgment must have been conditioned by the preceding form of action which the King and the Pontiffs had thought appropriate to the suit. n. 930, and in Bruns, Fontes Juris Romani Antiqui, v. 19. Name Gaius : Meaning, origin, etymology and all informations about first name Gaius - Roman praenomen, or given name, which is of Etruscan origin, meaning unknown